Tue. Jun 18th, 2024

The longest battle in ancient history was the Siege of Troy, which lasted for nearly ten years. This epic conflict was immortalized in Homer’s Iliad and has captivated the imagination of people for centuries. The battle began when the Trojan prince Paris abducted Helen, the queen of Sparta, and brought her back to Troy. The Greeks, led by King Agamemnon, launched a massive invasion to reclaim Helen and put an end to the war. However, the Trojans, led by King Priam, put up a fierce resistance, and the battle raged on for years. Despite numerous attempts to breach the city’s walls, the Greeks were unable to take Troy until they finally succeeded in sneaking in through the famous Trojan Horse. The Siege of Troy is a testament to the bravery and resilience of ancient warriors and continues to inspire people to this day.

Quick Answer:
The longest battle in ancient history was the Siege of Syracuse, which lasted from 413 BC to 412 BC. The battle took place in Sicily, Italy, and involved the city of Syracuse being besieged by the Carthaginians, who were attempting to capture the city. The siege lasted for almost a year and was marked by intense fighting and multiple failed attempts by both sides to gain the upper hand. The Syracusans, led by the Greek general Hermocrates, were eventually able to defeat the Carthaginians and repel their attack. The Siege of Syracuse is significant in ancient history as it marked the first time that a city had successfully withstood a protracted siege by a major power.

The Battle of Kadesh

Overview of the Battle

The Battle of Kadesh was one of the most significant conflicts in ancient history, and it is widely regarded as the longest battle ever fought. This epic struggle took place in 1274 BC, during the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II, and it was a pivotal moment in the history of the ancient world.

The Battle of Kadesh was fought between the forces of Ramses II and the Hittite Empire, which was led by the great king Muwatalli II. The conflict was sparked by a dispute over control of the strategically important city of Kadesh, which was located on the Orontes River in modern-day Syria. Both sides believed that they had a right to control the city, and tensions between the two empires eventually boiled over into open warfare.

The Battle of Kadesh was a truly monumental struggle, lasting for over a week and involving tens of thousands of soldiers on both sides. The conflict was marked by intense hand-to-hand combat, with soldiers using swords, spears, and other weapons to engage in brutal close-quarters fighting. The battlefield was also home to a series of dramatic chariot charges, as the heavily armored chariots of the Egyptian and Hittite armies clashed in a spectacular display of military might.

Despite the incredible scale and ferocity of the fighting, the outcome of the Battle of Kadesh was ultimately a draw. Both sides suffered heavy losses, and neither was able to gain a decisive advantage. However, the battle did have significant consequences for the region, as it marked the beginning of a period of increased diplomacy and cooperation between the Egyptian and Hittite empires. The peace treaty that was eventually signed between the two powers marked the first time that two major powers had formally agreed to end a war and establish a lasting peace.

The armies involved

The Battle of Kadesh was one of the most significant conflicts in ancient history, involving two of the most powerful empires of the time: the Egyptians and the Hittites. The Egyptian army was led by Ramesses II, who was one of the most renowned pharaohs of the 19th dynasty, while the Hittite army was commanded by Muwatalli II.

The Egyptian army was a well-trained and well-equipped force, comprising infantry, chariots, and archers. The infantry was made up of conscripted soldiers and was heavily outnumbered by the Hittite army. The chariots were the backbone of the Egyptian army, and they were used to provide mobility and firepower to the infantry. The archers were skilled marksmen who could shoot arrows from a distance, causing havoc among the enemy ranks.

On the other hand, the Hittite army was also a formidable force, with a strong core of professional soldiers. The Hittites were known for their skill in chariot warfare, and they had a large number of chariots in their army. They also had a formidable infantry, which was composed of experienced warriors who were trained to fight in close combat.

The Hittite army was divided into two main divisions, with Muwatalli II commanding one division and his brother commanding the other. The Hittite army was also supported by a number of allied forces, including the Amorites, the Hurrians, and the Kaskas.

Overall, the Battle of Kadesh was a clash between two of the most powerful empires of the ancient world, with both sides fielding large and well-equipped armies. The Egyptians were known for their skill in chariot warfare and their strong infantry, while the Hittites were known for their expertise in archery and their experienced professional soldiers.

The location and time of the battle

The Battle of Kadesh was one of the most significant conflicts in ancient history, taking place in the region of Syria, near the city of Kadesh, in 1274 BC. This epic battle lasted for an entire month, making it one of the longest battles ever fought in ancient times.

The conflict erupted when the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramses II, attempted to expand his empire by invading the Hittite territories in modern-day Turkey. The Hittite forces, led by their king, Muwatalli II, marched to meet the Egyptians at Kadesh, where they clashed in a brutal and prolonged struggle.

The exact duration of the Battle of Kadesh is uncertain, but estimates suggest that it lasted for around thirty days. The conflict was marked by intense fighting, with both sides suffering heavy losses. The Egyptians, who had marched from their stronghold in the Nile Delta, were severely weakened by the time they reached Kadesh, and the Hittites took advantage of this to launch a series of fierce attacks.

Despite the grueling nature of the battle, neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage. Eventually, both sides agreed to a peace treaty, which marked the end of the conflict. The treaty, known as the First Peace Treaty in History, was a significant moment in ancient history, as it established diplomatic relations between two powerful nations and helped to bring an end to the fighting.

The Battle of Kadesh was not only significant for its duration and intensity but also for its impact on ancient history. The treaty that followed the battle marked the beginning of a new era of diplomacy and cooperation between the Egyptians and the Hittites, and it set an important precedent for the resolution of conflicts in the ancient world.

The strategies used by the armies

The Battle of Kadesh was a pivotal conflict in ancient history that took place in 1274 BC between the forces of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under King Muwatalli II. The battle lasted for about three days and was the longest battle in ancient history.

Each army employed different strategies to gain an advantage over the other. The Egyptian army, led by Ramesses II, was a well-trained and disciplined force that relied on traditional phalanx formations and chariot tactics. Ramesses II also made use of the natural terrain to his advantage, positioning his troops behind a wall of chariots to protect them from the Hittite charges.

On the other hand, the Hittite army was a more diverse force that incorporated a mix of infantry, chariots, and archers. King Muwatalli II also employed the use of light cavalry and mobile troops to flank the Egyptian lines. The Hittites also had the advantage of higher ground, which they used to launch their attacks on the Egyptian positions.

The battle was marked by intense fighting, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. The Egyptians managed to hold their ground, while the Hittites were unable to breach the Egyptian defenses. In the end, the battle resulted in a stalemate, with both sides claiming victory. However, the battle marked the end of the Hittite threat to Egypt and the beginning of Egypt’s dominance in the region.

The outcome of the battle

The Battle of Kadesh was one of the most significant conflicts in ancient history, lasting for a duration of almost two weeks. The outcome of the battle was a draw, with both the Egyptians and the Hittites claiming victory.

While the Egyptians managed to capture some of the Hittite territory, they failed to achieve their main objective of defeating the Hittite army. On the other hand, the Hittites were able to hold their ground and prevent the Egyptians from advancing further into their territory.

Despite the stalemate, the Battle of Kadesh marked a significant turning point in ancient history. It was the first time that two major powers had engaged in a conflict of such scale and duration, and it set a precedent for future wars.

Moreover, the battle had far-reaching consequences, with the two empires eventually establishing diplomatic relations and engaging in trade. This marked the beginning of a new era of cooperation and exchange between the two cultures, and had a lasting impact on the history of the ancient world.

The significance of the battle

The Battle of Kadesh was a significant event in ancient history as it was one of the largest chariot battles ever fought. It was fought between the Egyptian Empire and the Hittite Empire in 1274 BC, and it lasted for several days. The battle was also significant because it marked the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt and the beginning of the Late Period.

Moreover, the Battle of Kadesh was significant because it was the first recorded battle where both sides used spies to gather intelligence on the enemy’s movements. The use of spies allowed the Egyptians to prepare for the Hittite attack and ultimately helped them to defend their territory.

Furthermore, the Battle of Kadesh was significant because it was the first recorded battle where both sides used chariots as their primary weapon. The use of chariots revolutionized warfare and marked the end of the Bronze Age.

In addition, the Battle of Kadesh was significant because it led to the signing of the first recorded peace treaty between two major powers. The treaty was signed between Ramesses II of Egypt and Hattusili III of the Hittite Empire, and it established the boundaries between the two empires.

Overall, the Battle of Kadesh was a pivotal event in ancient history that marked the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt and the beginning of the Late Period. It was also significant because it led to the use of new weapons and tactics, and it was the site of the first recorded peace treaty between two major powers.

Lessons learned from the battle

The Battle of Kadesh was one of the longest and most significant battles in ancient history. It was fought between the Egyptian army under the command of Ramesses II and the Hittite army led by Muwatalli II in 1274 BC. The battle lasted for three days and was marked by intense fighting and tactical maneuvers.

The battle taught several important lessons, including:

  • The importance of intelligence gathering: The Egyptians were able to gain crucial information about the Hittite army’s movements and plans through their network of spies, which allowed them to prepare their defenses accordingly.
  • The value of surprise: The Egyptians used several surprise attacks during the battle, including a feint retreat, which caught the Hittites off guard and allowed the Egyptians to gain an advantage.
  • The need for effective communication: The Egyptians were able to coordinate their forces effectively through their use of signaling devices, such as flags and fire beacons, which allowed them to respond quickly to changing circumstances on the battlefield.
  • The importance of adaptability: Both sides had to adapt their tactics and strategies during the battle in response to changing circumstances, such as the arrival of reinforcements or the shifting of the battlefield.
  • The impact of weather and terrain: The battle was fought in the hot desert of Syria, which made it difficult for both sides to maintain their forces and provided an advantage to the side that could best manage the harsh conditions.

Overall, the Battle of Kadesh demonstrated the importance of preparation, adaptability, and effective communication in ancient warfare, and its lessons were still being studied and applied by military strategists centuries later.

Other long battles in ancient history

The Battle of Gaugamela

The Battle of Gaugamela was one of the most significant battles in ancient history, fought between the forces of Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia in 331 BC. It was a pivotal moment in Alexander’s conquest of the Persian Empire and marked the end of Persian dominance in the region.

The Background

Alexander had been campaigning against the Persian Empire for several years, having already defeated key Persian forces at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and the Battle of Tyre in 332 BC. Darius III, the Persian king, had assembled a massive army of around 40,000 men and 200,000 auxiliaries to face Alexander’s smaller force of around 35,000 men.

The Battle

The Battle of Gaugamela was fought on a plain in northern Iraq, near the modern-day city of Dohuk. Alexander chose a tactical position on the battlefield, using his cavalry to flank the Persian army and attack their rear guard. Darius III, however, was slow to react and failed to take advantage of Alexander’s vulnerability.

The battle lasted for most of the day, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. Alexander’s troops were exhausted and running low on arrows, but he managed to rally them and launch a final attack on the Persian camp. Darius III fled the battlefield, and his army was routed.

The Aftermath

The Persian army was destroyed, and the Persian Empire was left in disarray. Alexander was now the master of the entire eastern Mediterranean and the Persian Empire’s territories. He went on to conquer Egypt and Babylon, becoming one of the most successful military commanders in history.

The Battle of Gaugamela was a defining moment in ancient history, marking the end of Persian dominance in the region and the beginning of Hellenistic dominance. It was a testament to Alexander’s military genius and strategic prowess, and it remains one of the most studied battles in military history.

The Siege of Tyre

The Siege of Tyre was one of the longest and most significant battles in ancient history. It took place from 332 BC to 315 BC and was fought between the forces of Alexander the Great and the city-state of Tyre. The siege lasted for over ten years and was marked by several key events that shaped the course of history.

Background

Tyre was a wealthy and powerful city-state located on the coast of modern-day Lebanon. It was known for its commercial power and strategic location, and it had long been a thorn in the side of the Persian Empire. When Alexander the Great launched his campaign against Persia, he saw the conquest of Tyre as a crucial step in his plans to dominate the region.

The Siege

Alexander began the siege of Tyre in 332 BC, and it would last for over ten years. The city was heavily fortified, and its location on an island made it difficult to access. Alexander used a variety of tactics to try to breach the city’s defenses, including building a causeway to connect the mainland to the island and using siege engines to batter down the walls.

The siege was marked by several key events, including the death of Hephaestion, one of Alexander’s closest companions, and the arrival of reinforcements for the Tyrians in the form of a fleet sent by the Persian Emperor. Despite these setbacks, Alexander continued to press the siege, and in 315 BC, the city finally fell.

Aftermath

The fall of Tyre was a significant victory for Alexander, and it marked the end of Persian dominance in the region. However, the long and grueling nature of the siege had taken its toll on Alexander’s forces, and many of his soldiers had died or deserted. The conquest of Tyre also had far-reaching consequences, as it paved the way for Alexander’s later conquests in India and the spread of Hellenistic culture throughout the region.

In conclusion, the Siege of Tyre was one of the longest and most significant battles in ancient history. It was marked by the use of innovative tactics and the determination of both sides, and its consequences were felt for many years afterwards.

The Battle of Megiddo

The Battle of Megiddo, fought in the 15th century BC during the Bronze Age, was one of the longest and most significant battles in ancient history. It took place in the fertile plain of Megiddo, located in present-day Israel, and lasted for several days, with multiple armies clashing in a brutal struggle for control of the region.

Some of the major players involved in the Battle of Megiddo included the Egyptians, under the rule of the powerful pharaoh Thutmose III, and a coalition of Canaanite city-states, led by the king of Kadesh. The Egyptians had been expanding their empire throughout the region, and the Canaanites, fearing their power, had banded together to resist them.

The battle began with a surprise attack by the Egyptians on the Canaanite forces, who were caught off guard and suffered heavy losses. However, the Canaanites rallied and managed to hold their ground, despite the Egyptians’ superior numbers and weapons. The fighting raged on for several days, with both sides taking turns to gain the upper hand, until finally, the Egyptians emerged victorious.

The significance of the Battle of Megiddo went beyond just the immediate conflict, as it marked the beginning of Egypt’s dominance in the region and the decline of the Canaanite city-states. It also had far-reaching consequences for the rest of the ancient world, as it demonstrated the power and military might of the Egyptian Empire, which would continue to expand and exert its influence over the next few centuries.

In summary, the Battle of Megiddo was one of the longest and most important battles in ancient history, with multiple armies clashing for several days in a struggle for control of the region. Its outcome had far-reaching consequences for the ancient world, marking the beginning of Egypt’s dominance and the decline of the Canaanite city-states.

The Battle of Leuctra

The Battle of Leuctra, fought in 375 BC, was one of the longest battles in ancient history. It was fought between Sparta and Thebes, two powerful city-states in ancient Greece, and lasted for three days.

Thebes, led by Epaminondas, had won a decisive victory at Leuctra, which marked the end of Sparta’s dominance in Greece and the beginning of Theban dominance. Thebes, led by Epaminondas, had won a decisive victory at Leuctra, which marked the end of Sparta’s dominance in Greece and the beginning of Theban dominance.

The Battle of Zama

The Battle of Zama was one of the longest battles in ancient history, lasting for three days from October 19 to 21, 202 BC. It was fought between the forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal and the Roman Republic under the command of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus.

The battle took place in modern-day Tunisia, near the city of Zama, and was a pivotal moment in the Second Punic War between Carthage and Rome. Hannibal, who had previously achieved notable victories against the Romans at the Battle of Cannae and the Battle of Lake Trasimene, was looking to extend his conquests into Italy and defeat the Roman Republic once and for all.

However, the Roman forces, led by the Scipio brothers, were determined to stop Hannibal’s advance and defend their homeland. The three-day battle was characterized by intense fighting and heavy casualties on both sides, with Hannibal’s army ultimately being defeated and forced to retreat.

The Battle of Zama marked the end of Hannibal’s military campaigns in Italy and the beginning of Roman dominance in the Mediterranean. It also demonstrated the effectiveness of Roman tactics and strategy, particularly the use of cavalry and light infantry, which proved crucial in outmaneuvering Hannibal’s forces.

Despite the heavy losses suffered by both sides, the outcome of the Battle of Zama was a decisive victory for the Roman Republic, solidifying their position as a major power in the ancient world.

Recap of the longest battles in ancient history

  • The Battle of Kadesh (1274 BC): This was a battle between the Egyptians and the Hittites, and it lasted for a week. It is considered one of the largest chess games in history, with thousands of soldiers and chariots involved.
  • The Siege of Troy (12th century BC): This battle lasted for ten years, according to Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad. The Trojan War was fought between the city of Troy and the Greek armies, and it was marked by many epic battles and heroic deeds.
  • The Battle of Megiddo (609 BC): This was a battle between the Egyptians and the Babylonians, and it lasted for seven days. It was one of the largest battles in ancient history, with thousands of soldiers and chariots involved.
  • The Battle of Raphia (217 BC): This was a battle between the Ptolemaic Egyptians and the Seleucid Greeks, and it lasted for two days. It was one of the largest battles in ancient history, with tens of thousands of soldiers and horses involved.
  • The Battle of Gaugamela (31 BC): This was a battle between the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, and the Persians. It lasted for three days, and it was one of the largest battles in ancient history, with tens of thousands of soldiers and horses involved.

The impact of these battles on ancient civilizations

The ancient world was characterized by long and bloody battles that often had a profound impact on the civilizations involved. Here are some examples of other long battles in ancient history and their impact on the societies they occurred in:

The Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)

The Battle of Gaugamela was fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire in 331 BC. The battle lasted for three days and resulted in a decisive victory for Alexander, effectively ending the Persian Empire’s dominance in the region. The victory marked the beginning of Hellenistic influence in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, and Alexander went on to conquer much of the known world.

The Siege of Tyre (315-312 BC)

The Siege of Tyre was a four-year-long battle fought between Alexander the Great and the city of Tyre, which was a major center of trade and commerce in the ancient world. The city was located on an island and was heavily fortified, making it difficult to capture. The siege resulted in the deaths of thousands of people and the destruction of much of the city. The fall of Tyre marked the end of the city’s independence and the beginning of Alexander’s dominance over the Mediterranean.

The Battle of Leuctra (371 BC)

The Battle of Leuctra was fought between Sparta and Thebes in ancient Greece in 371 BC. Thebes, led by Epaminondas, won a decisive victory over the Spartans at Leuctra, which marked the end of Sparta’s dominance in Greece and the beginning of Theban dominance. Thebes went on to establish a dominant position in Greece and the Aegean, and the victory at Leuctra marked the beginning of Theban influence in the region.

These battles had a significant impact on the societies they occurred in, leading to changes in political power, trade, and cultural influence. The impact of these battles was felt for many years after they occurred, and their legacy can still be seen in the modern world.

The relevance of these battles to modern warfare

The ancient battles that lasted for days, weeks, or even months, were not only significant for their duration but also for the strategies, tactics, and technologies employed by the warring parties. These battles offer valuable insights into the evolution of warfare and have influenced modern military thinking and practice in several ways.

Lessons in endurance and perseverance

Ancient battles that lasted for extended periods taught valuable lessons in endurance and perseverance to the soldiers involved. These battles often took place in harsh conditions, with limited resources, and with high casualties on both sides. The soldiers had to fight day and night, in hot and cold weather, and on various terrains, demonstrating incredible resilience and determination. These experiences taught them the importance of mental and physical toughness, which is still relevant in modern warfare.

Innovations in weapons and technology

Many of the longest battles in ancient history were marked by innovations in weapons and technology. For example, the use of siege engines and catapults in the Siege of Troy and the construction of the Great Wall of China to defend against invading armies were significant advancements in military technology. These innovations changed the nature of warfare and influenced the development of modern weapons and technologies, such as artillery, tanks, and drones.

The importance of intelligence and deception

Ancient battles also highlighted the importance of intelligence and deception in warfare. For example, Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War” emphasizes the importance of knowing one’s enemy and using deception to gain an advantage. The Battle of Leuctra, where Epaminondas used a surprise attack to defeat the Spartans, is another example of the use of intelligence and deception in ancient warfare. These tactics are still relevant in modern warfare, where intelligence gathering and cyber warfare play a crucial role in gaining an advantage over the enemy.

The significance of logistics and supply lines

Finally, ancient battles demonstrated the significance of logistics and supply lines in warfare. Many of these battles were fought in remote locations, and the warring parties had to rely on supply lines to transport food, water, and other supplies. The Battle of Marathon, for example, was fought over a distance of 26.2 miles, and the Athenian soldiers had to run back to Athens after the battle to warn of the victory. Modern warfare still relies heavily on logistics and supply lines, and the challenges of maintaining them in remote or hostile environments remain significant.

Final thoughts on the longest battle in ancient history

In ancient times, battles were often long and drawn-out affairs, with armies engaging in sieges and skirmishes that could last for months or even years. While there were many such battles in ancient history, one that stands out as the longest is the Battle of Paris, which lasted from 1572 to 1573 during the French Wars of Religion.

The Battle of Paris was a defining moment in French history, as it marked the end of the first phase of the French Wars of Religion and the beginning of the reign of the powerful Huguenot leader, Henry of Navarre. The battle was fought between the Catholic League, led by the Duke of Guise, and the Huguenots, led by Henry of Navarre.

The Battle of Paris was a long and brutal conflict, with both sides suffering heavy losses. The city of Paris was besieged for over a year, with the Huguenots eventually emerging victorious after a fierce struggle. The battle marked the end of the first phase of the French Wars of Religion and the beginning of a new era in French history.

Overall, the Battle of Paris was a significant event in ancient history, marking the end of a long and brutal conflict and the beginning of a new era in French politics. Its impact was felt throughout Europe, as it marked the emergence of a new power in France and the decline of the Catholic Church’s influence in the country.

FAQs

1. What was the longest battle in ancient history?

The longest battle in ancient history was the Battle of Thermopylae, which took place in 480 BC during the Persian Wars. The battle was fought between a small force of Greeks, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and a massive army of Persians, led by Xerxes I. The Greeks were vastly outnumbered, with estimates of the Persian army ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 soldiers, while the Greek force consisted of only 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians. Despite their numerical disadvantage, the Greeks held off the Persians for three days, inflicting heavy casualties and preventing the Persians from advancing further into Greece. The battle ended tragically for the Greeks, as they were eventually defeated and killed to a man, but their heroic stand has become a symbol of resistance against overwhelming odds.

2. Who were the main combatants in the Battle of Thermopylae?

The main combatants in the Battle of Thermopylae were the Greeks, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persians, led by Xerxes I. The Greeks were a small force of Spartans and Thespians, while the Persians had a massive army of soldiers drawn from various parts of their vast empire. The Greeks were vastly outnumbered, with estimates of the Persian army ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 soldiers, while the Greek force consisted of only 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians.

3. How long did the Battle of Thermopylae last?

The Battle of Thermopylae lasted for three days, from August 5 to August 8 in 480 BC. The Greeks held off the Persians for three days, inflicting heavy casualties and preventing the Persians from advancing further into Greece. The battle ended tragically for the Greeks, as they were eventually defeated and killed to a man, but their heroic stand has become a symbol of resistance against overwhelming odds.

4. Where did the Battle of Thermopylae take place?

The Battle of Thermopylae took place at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae, in central Greece. The pass was strategically important, as it was the only route by which the Persians could advance into the heart of Greece. The Greeks chose to make their stand at Thermopylae, hoping to hold off the Persians long enough to allow the rest of Greece to prepare for the coming invasion. Despite their heroic efforts, the Greeks were eventually defeated and the Persians were able to continue their advance into Greece.

5. What was the significance of the Battle of Thermopylae?

The Battle of Thermopylae was significant for several reasons. Firstly, it demonstrated the bravery and determination of the Greeks in the face of overwhelming odds. Despite being vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held off the Persians for three days, inflicting heavy casualties and preventing the Persians from advancing further into Greece. Secondly, the battle helped to unite the Greeks against the Persians, as news of the heroic stand at Thermopylae spread throughout Greece and inspired other cities to join the fight against the Persians. Finally, the battle has become a symbol of resistance against tyranny and oppression, and is celebrated as a key moment in the struggle for freedom and democracy.

THE LARGEST Ancient Battles in History

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